In the East and in the West, people enjoy its tenderness and warmth, admire its patterns and ornaments. A carpet is a work of art, interior decoration, finishing material, and even a full-fledged piece of furniture that can replace a bed, sofa, and chairs. In a word, a carpet is a "thing in itself", self-valuable and self-sufficient…
Today, the main function of the carpet is its decorativeness, and its main task is to decorate the house, increase its "status". It is no accident that designers recommend buying the most expensive carpet that you can afford, and even a little more expensive – with a "margin" of respectability. For this purpose, only natural, strong and durable products are suitable, which may even become a symbol of your family, inherited over time…
The ability of the carpet to create comfort depends on its heat and sound insulation properties. It is precisely established that a good carpet can reduce the cost of heating the room by 10%. On the silky or woolen surface of the carpet, it is very pleasant to walk bare feet – the feet do not freeze, the pile pleasantly massages the feet and absorbs steps. This is good for health in General and for the spine in particular. As for sound insulation, the carpet absorbs acoustic waves ten times better than solid walls and floors. But it is known that booming sounds do not contribute to either work or rest... Wool carpets have another feature: they maintain an ideal microclimate in the room, adjusting the humidity level. Excess water vapor is captured by the pile. At the same time, a good carpet is able to absorb moisture in an amount of up to a third of its own weight, without getting wet at all. And when the room gets too dry, it will return the wet vapors to the air.
In Altai, archaeologists have found an ancient carpet woven by nomads two and a half thousand years ago. In those days, carpets were used as a saddle and a house for wandering people. The rider stops in the middle of the bare steppe, removes the carpet "blanket" from the horse, and unfolds it on the ground-the bed is ready! People started decorating carpets as soon as they finally found a permanent place of residence. In the East, the carpet has become the most important thing in everyday life. It served as a caravan for traveling, a bed in the house, an object of worship (an accessory for prayers), was a work of art and the best gift... The richer the family lived, the more carpets it had. It was not customary to buy and sell them: each house had its own loom and its own "weavers". Only in the third century ad in the workshops and manufactories of Persia and Asia Minor began the production of carpets for sale. Along the great silk road, these items of Oriental luxury penetrated to the West. A few centuries later, they were taken to Europe by knights who participated in the Crusades, but not as a commodity, but as military booty. And, by the way, beautiful woven fabrics were to the taste of the inhabitants of uncomfortable castles, the Spaniards, for example, immediately invented their own technique for producing tapestries. In Royal palaces, it was soon realized that carpets could well become a symbol of the power of the monarch's power. For example, under the Bourbons, no one dared to step on a carpet covered with the coats of arms of the ruling family without the king's permission. In 1065, the first carpet workshop was opened in the Louvre, where weavers worked day and night on carpets for the court. Only for king Louis XIV, they produced about a hundred huge panels with exquisite drawings. Simple same mortals carpets have become available only with the fall of the Bourbon dynasty.
Industrial production of carpets began in 1839. However, Jacquard machines could not provide high quality and artistic value of products. Accordingly, handmade carpets have increased significantly in price. Numerous collectors of ancient Oriental carpets provoked the appearance of a huge number of falsifications. Deceivers, to give the new carpets a "noble gray", poisoned them with acid and alkali, rubbed them with coffee grounds, burned them and even buried them in the ground. At auctions, old and modern original carpets were sold (and are still sold) for astronomical amounts.
As we can see, history itself has turned the carpet from a "basic necessity" for nomads into a symbol of prosperity, good taste and stability. And today, the carpet remains one of the few things that buy once and for a lifetime.
1. Method of manufacture (handmade carpets are much more expensive).
2. Material of manufacture (carpets made of synthetic materials are much cheaper).
3. Product size.
4. The reputation of the manufacturer.
The centuries-old history of carpets has caused their extreme diversity. They can be divided by destination (for floor or walls), by style and design, by method of manufacture (manual, manufactured and machine), by material (wool, silk, acrylic). But the most universal, in our opinion, classification takes into account only the presence or absence of lint.
All lint-free carpets are descended from the usual Mat. However, in the old days, its harsh braided surface was "softened" by manually tying the villi to it with knots. There are two main varieties of lint – free carpets-kilim and sumac. Kilims do not have a technical (wrong) side, no matter how you turn it – the pattern is still the same. Kilim can be laid on the floor, used as a tablecloth or bedspread. In addition, it is easy to clean, and it does not deteriorate from heavy furniture. Sumakhs differ from kilim only in that they have a "wrong side".
Pile carpets are more familiar to us. There are many varieties of "fluffy" products. We will name the most basic ones, and we will get acquainted with their characteristics in a little more detail below. So, the loop carpet is probably the most inexpensive, velour – more expensive, Saxony – even more expensive. The shag carpet is the most fluffy and fashionable, the frieze is "curly", and the cut-loop is combined.
* single-level loop, when the loops of the pile are not cut and have the same length (carpets with this pile best resist wear, but dirt that penetrates deep into the pile is difficult to remove);
* multi-level loop, in which loops of different lengths form a sculptural pattern;
* velour-a short (up to 8 mm) cut pile creates a uniform, smooth, velvet-like surface (the easiest type of carpet to care for, but it clearly shows traces of footsteps and dirt);
* Saxony-cropped pile of twisted yarn, forms a smooth surface that has a characteristic "grainy" appearance (Saxony is valued for its special elegance);
* frieze-high strongly twisted pile (heterogeneity of the structure helps to hide footprints and dirt, but such carpets are difficult to care for);
* cut-loop-it combines cut high pile and low loops (uncut loops create a sculptural pattern and help hide footprints and dirt).
The density of the carpet is determined by how close to each other are its villi (and not their length). The higher the density, the higher its wear resistance, heat and sound insulation qualities. To estimate the density of a woven carpet, look at its back. If there is too much distance between the warp threads, the pile will quickly form during use.
Especially popular are sculptural carpets created using the technology of manual tufting. On the mesh base, the pile is manually tied, forming loops and "threads" of different sizes and colors. The carpet is obtained in relief, with a three-dimensional pattern and a rich color palette.
Caring for carpets made of synthetic and natural materials is simple. It consists in regular vacuuming (preferably not only on the front side, but also on the inside), and occasionally it is desirable to use wet cleaning with shampoo. Most stains are easily removed with conventional detergents, and mechanical damage is usually easy to eliminate at home.
The only thing to avoid is keeping the carpet folded twice or four times, as this creates noticeable folds that spoil the appearance. For the same reason, you should not knock out the carpet by hanging it on a rope. And, if all the recommendations are strictly followed, the home "symbol of taste and stability" will serve not only you, but also, perhaps, your children and grandchildren.
Carpets are very versatile. They can be laid anywhere, even in the kitchen and bathroom. The main thing is that the material from which they are made can withstand the specified operating conditions.
The oldest carpet material is wool. It is warm, elastic, and durable. Contamination in the wool is almost not noticeable. Also, carpets can be made of natural silk, cotton, linen, jute and other natural materials.
From synthetic materials, you can put acrylic fiber in the first place. However, carpets made of this fiber require more frequent cleaning. Inferior to them are carpets made of nylon fibers, which crumple faster and are easily contaminated if they do not have a special treatment. However, nylon is highly durable, as is polypropylene. An economical material is synthetic silk, which is often added to other fibers to give them bulk, but it itself has poor elasticity.
With the advent of synthetic fibers, new technologies for making carpets have also appeared. Once all carpets were woven on looms like tapestries. Today, most products are made by the method of pile loops on machines that sew the coarse fabric of the base with loops of bulk yarn. Such machines make carpets many times faster and cheaper than looms.